Freeland, scientific explanation and empirical data in aristotles mohan matthen and r. Tony roark describes aristotles view of time as follows aristotle defines time as a number of motion with respect to the before and after ( 219b12), by which he intends to denote motions susceptibility to division into undetached parts of arbitrary length, a property that it possesses both by virtue of its intrinsic nature and also by virtue of the capacities and activities of percipient souls. Book viii (which occupies almost a fourth of the entire physics, and probably constituted originally an independent course of lessons) discusses two main topics, though with a wide deployment of arguments the time limits of the universe, and the existence of a eternal, indivisible, without parts and without magnitude.
Something happens by chance when all the lines of causality converge without that convergence being purposefully chosen, and produce a result similar to the in chapters 7 through 9, aristotle returns to the discussion of nature. Thus, those entities are natural which are capable of starting to move, e. This is not caused by any contact but (integrating the view contained in the aristotles physics. In this article, books are referenced with roman numerals, chapters with arabic numerals. Natural science, the metaphysics, zoology, psychology, the nicomachean ethics, on statecraft , scanned, so it includes the translators emphases and divisions within chapters (missing in the editions below).
This implies, in aristotles view, that there can be no first stage of change there is no definite moment when the motion begins. Dodds, science, causality and divine action classical principles for contemporary challenges, see sachs 2006 for a good discussion of the etymologies of the words aristotle uses, as well as the distinction between the words usually translated into english as actuality and activity. This is not caused by any contact but (i integrate the view contained in the httpetext.
Motion is intrinsically indeterminate, but perceptually determinable, with respect to its length. He distinguishes between the infinite by addition and the infinite by division, and between the and potentially infinite. Book i discusses the scientists approach to nature and the world of changing things and the doctrines of the presocratic natural philosophers, in particular. Time is defined as the number of movement in respect of before and after, so it cannot exist without that but it is also said that it is the soul, capable of measuring the movement, which makes there be time. He presents his own account of the subject in chapter 7, where he first introduces the word ) to designate the substratum of change.